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  • 元明清雕塑艺术的历史概况
    发布日期:2017-03-09     浏览:637次     文字分类:雕塑知识  
    元明清雕塑艺术的历史概况

    ZAIZHONGGUOFENGJIANSHEHUILISHISHANG,YANXULELIUGEDUOSHIJIDEYUAN、MING、QINGSANDAI,SHIFENGJIANSHEHUIZHIDUHOUQIDAOMOQIDESHIDAI,YESHIJILIAO、JIN、XIXIAZHIHOU,ZHONGDUOMINZUSHOULINGXIANGJIZHULUZHONGYUANBINGJIANLITONGYIGUOJIADESHIDAI。YOUMENGGUZUJIANGUODEYUANDAI(GONGYUAN1271NIANYI1368NIAN,DOUJINBEIJINGCHENG),ZAOZAIKAIGUODEBANGEDUOSHIJIYIQIAN,JIYOUSHIZUCHENGJISIHAN(TIEMUZHEN)TONGER4GEBULUO,JIANLIQIQIANGDADEFENGJIANJUNZHUZHIGUOJIA。BINGYUTADEJICHENGRENWOKUOTAI、MENGGEDENGJINXINGLESANCIXIZHENG,ZHANGQUZHIRUDAONANYA、ZHONGYAYIZHIDONGOUGEGUO,CENGYIDUGONGZHANLEJINTIANDESULIAN、BOLAN、XIONGYALIYIJIYILAKE、XULIYA、SHATEALABODENGDI,XINGCHENGLEYIGEHENGKUAOUYADEDAHANGUO。ZAICIJUNSHISHENGLIDEXINGSHIXIA,HENKUAIXIAOMIELEZHONGGUOBEIBUDEJINGUOHENANBUDENANSONG,TONGYILEQUANZHONGGUO。ZHENGRU《YUANSHI・DILIZHI》SUOKUAYAODE,DANGSHIDEJIANGYUYISHI“BEIYUYINSHAN,XIJILIUSHA,DONGJINLIAOZUO,NANYUEHAIBIAO”。DAOYUANCHAOJIANGUOSHI,YISHIYUANSHIZUHUBILIE(JIMENGGEDAHAN)ZHIYUANBANIANDESHI,TAJIESHULEZHONGGUOZIBEISONGYILAIJIAOZHANGQIDEFENLIEJUMIAN,JIANLIQIYIGEYIMENGGUZUWEITONGZHIZHONGXINDEDUOMINZUTONGYIGUOJIA,SHIZHONGGUOGUONEIGEMINZURENMINZHIJIANDEJINGJI、WENHUADEDAOGUANGFANDEJIAOLIUHEFAZHAN。TONGSHI,YOUYUJIANGTUDEKUODA,CUJINLEGUONEIWAIJIAOTONGDEFADAHEYUHAIWAIZHUGUODELIANXI。YINCI,YUANCHAOTONGZHISHIQI,ZHONGGUOCHENGWEIDANGSHISHIJIESHANGZUIQIANGDA、FUSHUDEGUOJIAZHIYI。ZHUMINGDEYIDALIYOULITANXIANJIAMAKEBOLUOJIUSHIZAIYUANSHIZUZHIYUANSHIERNIAN(GONGYUAN1275NIAN)LAIZHONGGUODE。TAJINGYANGZHONGGUODEWENMING,ZAIZHONGGUOZHULESHIQINIAN,BIANYOUGEDACHENGSHI,HUIGUOHOUXIECHENGHONGDONGSHIJIEDE《MAKEBOLUOYOUJI》,SHENGZANZHONGGUODEFANHUAFUSHUJICANLANDEWENHUAYISHU。

    YUANCHAOMONIAN,YOUYUMENGGUGUIZUDUIYUTUDIDELVEDUOHEDUIYUHANZURENMINCANKUYAPO,JIQILENONGMINBUDUANDEQIYIFANKANG。QIYIJUNJIANGLINGZHIYIDEZHUYUANZHANGZAIZHANZHENGZHONGQUDESHENGLIJIBAILEQITAQIYIJIANGLING,XIAOMIELEYUANCHAODETONGZHI,JIANLIQIMINGCHAO(GONGYUAN1368NIANYI1644NIAN)。XIANDOUNANJING,HOUQIANBEIJING。WEILEGONGGUQIFENGJIANTONGZHI,ZHUYUANZHANGBATAERSHISIGEERZIFENFENGDAOQUANGUOGESHENGWEIFANWANG。ZAIMINGCHAOQIANQI,YOUYUCAIQULEYIXIEFAZHANNONGYESHENGCHANDECUOSHI,YUZHIXIANGLIANXIDESHOUGONGYEHESHANGYE、JIAOTONGDENGYEDOUYOULEJIAODADEFAZHAN。YOUYUMINGCHAOJIANGNANDIQUSICHOUHEFANGZHIYEDEXINGSHENG,CUJINLEZHONGGUOZIBENZHUYIMENGYADECHANSHENG,TONGSHIYOUYUSHANGYEMAOYIDEXUYAO,ZHONGGUOZAOQIDEHANGHAIJIA、GONGTINGTAIJIANZHENGHECENGLVLINGCHUANDUIQIXIA“XIYANG”,YUDONGNANYA、YINDU、ALABOYIJIFEIZHOUDONGANDENGJISHIGEGUOJIATONGHAO,BINGYOULESHANGYEWANGLAI。DANDAOMINGCHAOHOUQI,YOUYUDIZHUTONGZHIJIASHENLEDUILAODONGRENMINDEBOXUE,SHIDEJIEJIMAODUNJIHUA。MINGCHAOZUIHOUDEHUANGDICHONGZHEN,JIUSHIZAINONGMINQIYIJUNLIZICHENGGONGRUBEIJINGYIHOU,ZIYISIYUMEISHAN(JINJINGSHANGONGYUAN)DE。FAJIYUWOGUODONGBEISONGHUAJIANGYIDAIDENVZHENZU(MANZUDEQIANSHEN),ZAOZAIMINGCHAOCHUNIAN,JIUYIJINGYOULEWENGUDEDIPAN。SHOULINGNUERHACHITONGYINVZHENGEBU,JIANLIQI“HOUJINGUO”。QIZIHUANGTAIJIKUODAJIANGTU,YUMINGCHONGZHENJIUNIAN(1636)GAIGUOHAOWEI“QING”,JUYOUDONGBEIJIMENGGUGEDI,XINGCHENGYUMINGCHAODUILIDEFENGJIANWANGCHAO。MINGWANGHOU,QINGJUNGOUJIEHANZUNEIJIANWUSANGUI,HENKUAIZHANSHENGLELIZICHENGDENONGMINJUN,GONGZHANLEBEIJINGCHENG,JIANLILEQINGWANGCHAO。(GONGYUAN1644―1911NIAN)WEILEJIAQIANGDUIHANZUDETONGZHI,BANXINGXIEFALING,BINGGAIWEIMANZUFUZHUANG,ZHEISHIHANZURENMINSUOBUNENGJIESHOUDE,YINCIJIQIQUANGUODEPUBIANFANKANG。DANYOUYUQINGTONGZHIZHEYUHANZUGUANLIAODIZHUXIANGGOUJIEYIZHENYARENMIN,SHIDEZHENGQUANGONGGU。CONGSHUNZHI、KANGXI、YONGZHENGDAOQIANLONGDEYIBAIWUSHIDUONIANZHONG,GUANGDALAODONGRENMINZAISHOUJINJIEJI、MINZUYAPOBOXUEDETONGKUSHENGHUOXIA,GONGNONGYESHENGCHANRENGYOULEHENDADEFAZHAN。DAOQINGZHONGQIDEJIAQING、DAOGUANGNIANJIAN,FENGJIANJINGJISUIJIXUFAZHANTIGAO,DANJIEJIMAODUNHEMINZUMAODUNYIQUJIHUA,GEDINONGMINQIYIFANKANG,CIQIBIFU,SHIDEQINGWANGCHAOZHUJIANZOUXIANGMEILUO。

    手机棋牌游戏QINGDAISHIZHONGGUOFENGJIANSHEHUIZUIHOUYIGEWANGCHAO,QIHOUQIZHENGZHIOUMEIDIGUOZHUYIZHIMINZHUYISUOWEI“LIEQIANG”GUOJIASICHUQINLVEDESHIDAI,TAMENDUIYUCHUZAIFENGJIANBIGUANZISHOU、HAOCHENGWEIDONGYASHUISHIHUOBINGFUDEZHONGGUO,WUBUJIYU,SHIZUOYIKUAIFEIZHI。WEISHOUDEYINGDIGUOZHUYIBINGYIYAPIANDUHAIZHONGGUORENMIN,SHIZHONGGUOMEINIANYAOFUCHUBAIYINWUQIANDUOWANLIANG,YINERJIQIZHONGGUORENMINDEJIANJUEFANKANG。DANYOUYUQINGZHENGFUDERUANRUOWUNENG,YIZHIZAI1840NIANYUYINGGUOJINXINGDE“YAPIANZHANZHENG”SHIBAI,SHIZHONGGUOCONGCILUNWEIBANFENGJIANBANZHIMINDIGUOJIA。ZHONGGUOLISHISHANGGUDAISHIYUJINDAISHIDEFENQIYESHIYI1840NIANWEIJIEDE,CONG1840NIANYIHOU,QINGZHENGQUANWAISHOUGEDIGUOZHUYIDEBUDUANQINLVE,NEIPOYUGUANGDANONGMINDEQIYIFANKANG,ZHUMINGDEYOUBAILIANJIAO、TIANLIJIAOYIZHIGENGDAGUIMODETAIPINGTIANGUOYUNDONG,DOUSHIQINGCHAODETONGZHISHOUDAOCHENZHONGDAJI。GENGJIAYITONGZHIJIEJIDEFUXIUSHEMI,ZHEIJIUJUEDINGLEQINGWANGCHAODEBIRANMIEWANG,BINGCONGCIJIESHULEZHONGGUOFENGJIANSHEHUI,ZOUXIANGYOUXINMINZHUZHUYIGUODUDAOSHEHUIZHUYIDEXINSHEHUI。

    第二节中国雕塑艺术进一步走向世俗化和衰萎时期

    手机棋牌游戏YUANDAISHIZHONGGUOLISHISHANGYOUSHAOSHUMINZUTONGZHIDESHIDAI。YOUYUYOUMUBUZUDELUOHOUYINSU,XIANGYINGDIZUAIZHESHEHUIJINGJISHENGCHANHEWENHUAYISHUDEFAZHAN。YUANCHAOGUANFUWEILEMANZUMENGGUGUIZUSHEMISHENGHUODEXUYAO,TEZAIGONGBUSHELIZHUSERENJIANGZONGGUANFU、TIJUSIHEGEZHONGJUYUAN,QIZHONGGONGJIANGTONGCHENGWEI“JIANGHU”,QUANSHICONGMINJIANSOUGUAERLAI,GUYOUMINGWEI“KUOJIANG”。YUANSHIZUZHIYUANSHILIUNIAN,ZAIZHONGGUOBEIFANGGEDIYICIJIUKUOJIANGSISHIERWANREN,ZHIYUANERSHISINIANYOU“JIJIANGNANMINWEIGONGJIANGSANSHIWANHU。”ZHEIXIEGONGJIANGJIANGHU,DUOZHANGWOYOUYIDINGDESHOUGONGYIJISHU,DANGRANQIZHONGYEYOUSHAOSHUJINGYUDIAOSUDERENCAI,DANQUESHOUDAOYUANDAITONGZHIZHEDECANKUTONGZHI,SUOYOUGONGJIANGDOUGUIDINGZISUNSHIXI,BEIZHANGQI“JIUJU”,ZHONGRIZHONGNIANZAILIZUJIANDUZHIXIAXINQINGONGZUO,BUDEXIUXI,GENGBUNENGGAIYELIQU,RUCI,GONGJIANGDEJIJIXINGHECHUANGZAOXINGJINANYIFAHUI,YEZUAILESHOUGONGYEJISHU,BAOKUODIAOSUJISHUDEFAZHAN。

    YOUYUYUANCHAOTONGZHIZHECHONGXINTONGXINGYUXIZANG(DANGSHIDETUFAN)DELAMAJIAO,(FOJIAOZHONGDEYIPAI)YUANSHIZUCENGFENGLAMAJIAOFAWANGBASIBAWEI“GUOSHI”HE“DABAOFAWANG”。YINCI,YUANDAIDELAMAJIAOZAOXIANGPOWEISHENGXING。TONGSHI,DAOJIAOZAIYUANDAIYEHENXINGSHENG,DAOJIAOZAOXIANGYEDUOYOUYILIU,SHENZHIYUANDAIHAIYOUSHUYUDAOJIAODESHIKU。;GUANYUFOJIAOZAOXIANG,JU《YUANSHI》JIZAI,YUANDAICENGSHELI“FANXIANGTIJUSI”,BINGZAI“JIANGZUOYUAN”ZHONGFENSHESHI、YU、MU、WADENGJU,ZHUANSIDIAOSUZHIZUO。《YUANDAIHUASUJI》ZHONGCENGBAFO、DAOXIANGHEJINGANG、SHENGUI、LUOHAN、SHENGSENGXIANGLIEYUHUAGONGSHISANKEZHIXIAN(JIAN《JINGSHIDADIAN》),YEZUYISHUOMINGYUANDAIDUIYUFO、DAODIAOSUZAOXIANGDOUSHIHENWEIZHONGSHIDE。

    手机棋牌游戏ZAIMINGCHAO,ZUICHUTAOFAYUANCHAODEXIWENZHONG,CENGJINGTICHU“QUZHUHULU、HUIFUZHONGHUA”。ZHEIZHONGJINGSHENYEBIRANYAOFANYINGZAIMINGCHAODESHIZHENGCUOSHIZHONG,YOUQIZAIWENHUAMEISHUFANGMIAN,MINGCHAOBUJINYOULEISISONGDAIHUAYUANDESHESHI,BINGQIEXIANGWANGSHENGTANGDEWENWUZHIDU。CONGMINGDAIYILIUDAOJINTIANDEYIXIEDIAOSUZAOXIANGDEZAOXINGFENGGESHANG,BUNANKANCHUTABUZHISHIJICHENGLESONGDAI,GENGYUSHENGTANGSHIDAIDEZHIZUOYOUMOUXIEJIEJIN。ZHISHIYOUYUCHENGSHIGONGSHANGYEHESHISUSHENGHUODEJINYIBUFAZHAN,FOJIAOSHIKUZAOXIANGGENGWEIJIANSHAO,JICHENGSHISIMIAOZHONGDEOUXIANG,ZAIFO、DAOZAOXIANGYIWAI,QITADESHENMIAORUCHENGHUANG、TUDI、GUANYU、YUEFEIDENGZHUJIANFANDUO,ZHEIYANGSHIDEZHONGGUODIAOSUYISHUZAITICAINEIRONGSHANGDEDAODUOFANGMIANDEFAZHAN。TONGSHI,YOUYUSHISUMEISHUDEFADA,YONGWEIBAISHEDEXIAOPINGONGYIDIAOSUYIJIYONGYUGONGDIANJIANZHUDEZHUANGSHIDIAOSUYEDOUYOULEXIANGYINGDEFAZHAN。

    手机棋牌游戏QINGDAISHIZHONGGUOFENGJIANSHEHUILISHIJIEDUANDEZUIHOUYIGECHAODAI,YESHIFENGJIANSHEHUIXIANZHUZOUXIANGXIAPODESHIDAI。FANYINGZAIYISHIXINGTAIDEMEISHUFANGMIAN,DUOSHUSHIMOFANGQIANDAI,QUESHAOCHUANGZAOJINGSHEN。BIAOXIANZAIXINGXIANGMINGXIANDEDIAOSUYISHUSHANG,JISHIKEYIMOFANGQIANDAI,RENGXIANDERUANRUOSONGCHI,QUEFASHENGQI。ZHEIZHONGXIANXIANG,YOUYIQINGDAIHOUQIGENGSHIPUBIANCUNZAI。ZAIDIAOSUZHIZUODETICAINEIRONGFANGMIAN,YESHIYANXIZHEMINGDAIERGENGWEITUIJINLEYIBU,JISHISUDESHENZHIZAOXIANGHEXIAOPINGONGYIDIAOSU,JIAOZHIMINGDAIGENGJIANFANDUO。LINGRENSHIFENYIHANDESHIZAIXINZHONGGUODANSHENGYIQIANDEJIUSHIDAI,CENGYOUYIGESHIQIYOUYUSHEHUIJINGJIDEKUNE,BUSHAODIQUSHENGLV“HUIMIAOBANXUE”ZHIFENG,JIBASIMIAOZHONGDESHENXIANGHUIQU,LIYONGMIAOWUYIXINGBANZHONGXIAOXUE,KANLAISIHUSHI“POCHUMIXIN,YIBIWEILI”,DANCONGBAOCUNSIMIAOZAOXIANGYIZHIBIHUAYISHUYICHANDEJIAODULAIKAN,QISUNSHISHINANYIGULIANGDE。ZHEIZHONGHUIMIAOYIPOCHUMIXINDESHIJIAN,ZAIQINGDAIMONIANDEXINHAIGEMINGYIZHIJINNIANDELICIZHANZHENGHEDONGLUANZHONG,YESHIYOUFASHENG。ZHEISUISHISHUYUJINDAIHUOXIANDAIDELISHISHIJIAN,DANSUOHUIQUDEBAOKUOTANG、SONG、YUAN、MING、QINGGEDAIMIAOYU,QIZHONGFUYOUYISHUJIAZHIDEDIAOSUZAOXIANGYIZUOHAISHIBUSHAODE。YISHANGSUOSHUQINGKUANG,DUOSHIZHUZHEQINYANKANDAODESHISHI,MEIYIYIJIYOUYOUBUSHENGWANXIZHIQING。DANRUYUQUDEZUGUODEXINSHENGHESHEHUIZHUYIGEMINGDEWEIDASHIYEXIANGBI,YOUSHIWEIBUZUDAODEMOJIELE。

    佛教和道教雕塑

    手机棋牌游戏ZHONGGUOFENGJIANSHEHUIDAOJIEJINBINGYIJIEMOQIDEYUAN、MING、QINGSANDAI,YOUYUSHEHUIJINGJI,YOUQISHIZIBENZHUYIMENGYADEZHUBUCHANSHENGSUOCUCHENGDESHEHUISIXIANGYISHIDEZHUANBIAN,SHIDERENMENDUIYUZONGJIAODEXINYANGQILEHENDADEBIANHUA。FOJIAOSHILISUIYIJIANQUSHUAILUO,DANYUFOJIAOBINGXINGDEDAOJIAOYIZHIQITADESHENGUIMIXIN、JIANMIAOGONGFENGDEFENGQIQUEBIYIQIANXINGSHENG。RUMEIYICHENGSHIDOUYOUYUKONGZIMIAOTONGYANGGUIMODECHENGHUANGMIAO,DAOMINGDAIYOUGENGDADEJIANZAO。CHENGHUANGSHOUFENGWEIDI,QISUXIANGHEPEISHISHICONGGUIMO,DUOGAOCHUYUQITASHENMIAO。HAIYOUSHUYUDAOJIAODEYUHUANGMIAO、DONGYUEMIAOYIJIBEIFANGGESHENGNONGCUNDOUYOUDETUDIMIAO(SHESHEN)、GUANDIMIAO……DENGDENG。SUOYOUZHEIXIEMIAOYU,DOUSUYOUSHUMUBUDENGDEOUXIANG。YINCI,ZHEIYISHIQI,KESHUOSHIZHONGGUODIAOSUZAOXIANGYISHUDAFAZHANDESHIDAI。RANER,WOMENYISHANGSUOTANDEZHISHIZHICHENGSHIZHONGDESIMIAOFAZHAN,ERDICHUYUANLICHENGSHIDEFOJIAOSHIKUDIAOXIANG,QUESHIDADAJIANSHAO,SHENZHIJIANJIANJUEJILE。



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