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  • 【教学研究】2---人体泥塑训练中的形体要素
    发布日期:2015-07-23     浏览:874次     文字分类:雕塑知识  



    Palign=right孙闯

    ;人体泥塑习作是雕塑教学的主要基础课程,目的在于培养学生掌握表现人物的造型能力。因此,如何引导学生在空间中观察对象,从形体出发塑造对象,整体表现对象就是必须解决的三个问题,它们之间既相对独立又紧密联系。作为教学探讨,笔者尝试把泥塑习作训练中的问题比作一条链环,并着重对这些链环的联结点之细微处进行剖析,以寻找其中的规律。

    STRONG;树立空间形体观念/STRONG

    ;近年来考入雕塑系的新生基本上是这样两部分:一是学院的;附中生;二是在各种美术训练班学习过的考生。他们都具有一些素描基础,也或多或少地尝试作过一些泥塑手机棋牌游戏,但总的说来,对于雕塑的语言还是知之甚少。绘画与雕塑在艺术语言上有很多共同的地方,素描基础对于认识雕塑也有很大的帮助,但是绘画与雕塑毕竟是差异很大的艺术形式,各自具有个性极强的艺术语言。绘画是平面造形,而雕塑是在空间中表现对象;绘画中对象的长度与宽度不产生变化,而深度则要在“模拟的空间”中利用透视原理进行表现。雕塑中的形体与形体之间都实实在在地呈现在我们面前,不会产生长、宽、深三度空间的变化。既然对象与雕塑都是展现在空间的实体,这就要求初学者首先学会在空间中观察形体。英国著名雕塑家享利·英尔说“雕塑在表达能力上有不及绘画的地方,但它是立体的,可以从不同角度欣赏,这点远非绘画所及”。他又指出:“欣赏雕塑完全要靠对三度空间的形式所具有的反映能力。也许这就是为什么雕塑被认为是所有艺术中最难的原因了。它当然要比那种仅限于平面形式和两维形状的艺术难得多。更多的人是‘形盲’甚于‘色盲;’。……虽然他们可以在平面形式的感觉理解上达到相当准确的程度,但却不在理性和感性上作进一步的努力去理解占据空间的完满形式。”乍一听到“形盲”,很多人都会吃惊,但是事实确定如此。从人的生理结构来说,应该具备纵深距离的判断能力,但为什么又有“形盲”之说呢,细心观察生活的人会发现,婴儿常常抓不到他要拿的东西,原因是他们对空间形体的大小长宽的感觉比深度感觉强,由于生活需要,比如婴儿要抓住母亲的乳房吃奶,抓住有兴趣的玩具……在随后的岁月里不断地加强对纵深的认识,比如判断下楼的梯步的长度等,然而在这种感觉发展到能够满址足生活基本需要后,就不再发展了,但对于从事雕塑的人这种深度感觉肯定是不够的,他应不断发展对空间认识,从平面过渡到纵深,从二维过渡到三维,从“平面中思考”过渡到“在空间中思考”是必须突破的第一关。既然雕塑艺术语言是由占据着长、宽、深三度空间的;积所组成,那么我们必须通过认识体感进而掌握它,但这却不是一朝一夕就能办到的,对许多初学者可以说是一个相当痛苦的过程,对这点认识不清甚至在学了很多年雕塑的人身上也可以看到,他们可以涌讨熟练加感觉把人体塑出来,然而这种雕塑必然是松软没有生命力的,其根本原因就在于一点一点临摹出来的人体,与主动把握空间中的形体的结果大不一样。

    ;初学者看一个形,看到的往往是一些点与外轮廓线,通过一段时间的学习,便能看到由线组成的面,这时的他应该说比初期有了很大的进步了,但仅仅能看到面还是不够的,空间中的形体到底是什么呢?简而言之就是完整占有空间的体积,任何附着在这个体积上的点、线、面都只是这个体积的一部分,基于这点,我们做泥塑从—开始就要透过复杂的形把握住空间基本形,把对象看简单一些,而不是什么都要看、都要塑。这种局部小形服从整体大形的观察认识方法就象—个立方体摆在我们手上,首先应看到它在空间中长度、宽度、厚度间的紧密关系,而不应仅仅只是十二条线组成的六个面。这样才能抓住形体的本质。;

    STRONG;从形体出发塑造人体/STRONG

    手机棋牌游戏;RENTISHIYOUZHONGDUODEGUGE、JIROU、ZHIFANG、PIFUHEMAOFASUOZUCHENG。ZIXIFENXIMEIGEXIAOJUBUDOUFEICHANGFUZA,JIAZHIMEIGEMOTESHENGHUOJINGLIBUTONG,WAIXINGSHANGYIXIEOURANDEJIXINGJIFUSEDECUOJUE,DOUHUISHIXUESHENGGANDAOWUCONGXIASHOU,HUOZHEYIGEJUBUYIGEJUBUDEPINCOU;HUOZHEYITIAOBIANXIANYITIAOBIANXIANDEQULINMODUIXIANG,YONGWUSHUTIAO“LUNLANGYINGXIANG”QUHEDUIXIANGXIANGBIJIAO;HUOZHETONGGUODIAOZI,QUXUNZHAORENTIZHONGDEXIAN,RANHOURENWEIZHEIYESHIGUANCHAXINGTIDEFANGFA。JIEGUODANGRANYEKEYIBARENTILINMODEBIZHEN,DANZHEIZHONGLINMODUIXIANGDEJIEGUOSHIZHINENGXUNGUIDAOJU,BUGANYUELEICHIBANBU,DANGXUYAOGAIKUO,TIGAOSHIJIUXIANDELIBUCONGXINLE,DANGRANZUOPINYEJIUDABUDAOCHUANSHENDEXIAOGUO。SUOYISHUOZHICONGBIAOMIANMOFANGDUIXIANGSHIMEIYOUCHULUDE,JIANGZUIZHONGDAOZHIZUOPINPINGYONG,TIJIRUOHUA,GENGTANBUSHANGYOUSHENMEYISHUGANRANLILE。

    ;RENTIJUTIDEDANGEXINGTI,YINGSHIDUIDUIXIANGGANJUEHOUDEGAIKUO,MOTEZISHENDETEDIANJIWOMENQISHIYUGANSHOU。ZAICIJICHUSHANGBAZHEIZHONGGANSHOUYOUMINGQUEDIJINXINGGAIKUO、GUINA,SHIZHIBIDUIXIANGGENGXIANMING、QIANGLIE,TEZHENGGENGMINGLANG,BINGZAIQIZHONGFUYUJIHETIDEYINSU。ZHEIYANGDEXINGTIJIUZAIBUSHIYUANLAIDEZIRANXINGTAI,ERSHIJINGGUOCHOUXIANGYUZONGHEHOUGANJUEYUGAIKUODEZHONGXINJIEHE。ZHEIZHONGGAIKUOBUSHIDUIKEGUANDUIXIANGDEBUZUNZHONG,YINWEIZHUGUANGANSHOUYINGGAISHIYIKEGUANDUIXIANGWEIJICHUDE,XINGTIRENSHIYINGGAIZHENSHIGANJUE,DANGAINIANHUADEFENKUAIFENMIANWANGWANGSHIZAOXINGJIANGHUADEGENYUAN,NEIZHONGDUIDUIXIANGZUOSUIYIDEGAIBIANTONGYANGYESHIWOMENFANDUIDE,BIJINGKETANGRENTIXIZUOYUANZESHANGYINGSHIXIESHIDE。

    ;ZAISUZAODUIXIANGSHIJINJINDEZHUAZHUJIGEDADEXINGTI,JIZHURENTISHIYOUTOU、XIONG、PENGU、DAXIAOTUI、DAXIAOBEIGOUCHENGYEJIUDENGYUJIZHULEZHENGGERENTI,GENGZHONGYAODESHIXUEHUISHEQI,RUGUOYIKAISHISUZAOJIUKANDAOMOTEDEXIXIAOBIANHUA,XIWEIZHUANZHEBUFANG,QIJIEGUOBIXUSHIJIANLEZHIMA,DIUDIAOXIGUA,YINCI,WOMENYINGZAIDUIXIZHIMOJIEDESHEQIZHONGWANCHENGDIAOSU。

    ;ZAIDAZUBAODINGSHANSHIKEDEMODUAN,ZHIJINHAIYOUJIZUNBAOCUNWANHAO、ERYOUMEIYOUWANCHENGDEHUFASHENDESHIKEDIAOSU。HUFASHENMEIYOUWANGONGDETUIJIPENGUSHIWANZHENGDEZHANGFANGXINGZHUTI,SHANGMIANDEXIONGSHIGAIKUODEJIBENXING,JIEJINWANCHENGDETOUBUJINXINGLEZIXIDEKEHUA。MEICIWOZHANZAIZHEIJIZUNDIAOSUMIANQIAN,DOUBEIQIANBEIYISHUJIADUIXINGTIDELIJIESHENSHENDEZHENHANZHE。RUGUOSHUOXIANDAIJIANZHUJIAYIJINGBAJIANZHUDANGZUODIAOSULAIZUO,BINGZAIQIZHONGFUYUXINGTIDELIJIEYUMEIGANDEHUA,NEIMEWOMENYEYINGGAIBADIAOSUZHONGDEDAXINGTIDANGZUOJIANZHULAIKAN,RENTIDEXIJIEHAOBIFANGZIZHONGDEMENCHUANG,MEIYOUFANGZICHUJIUTANBUSHANGANZHUANGMENCHUANGLE,ZHEIYANGLIJIE,JIANGHUISHIWOMENZAISUZAOGUANNIANSHANGGENGRONGYIZHUAZHUDADEZONGSHENDEXINGQUAN,ZHEIZHONGJIANZHUGANYEHUISHIWOMENDEDIAOSUXINGTIGENGWANZHENG。JIESHI,YEJIUGENGJIACHONGMANSHENGMINGLI。DUIYUJIBENXINGTI,WOMENDELAOZUZONGMENJIWOMENLIUXIALEHENDUOBAOGUIDECAIFU,MINJIANHUIHUAZHONGJIUBARENDETOUBUGAIKUOCHENGJIA、SHEN、YOU、GUO、TIAN、YONGDENGXINGXIANGDEJIBENXING,ANZHEIXIERENSHILAIGUANCHARENTIYEJIUBUZONGSHIZAIXIJIESHANGJIUCHANBUQINGLE。ZAIDIAOSUXUNLIANZHONG,SHENMESHIHOUXUEHUILESHEQI,SHENMESHIHOUSHIYEJIUHUIGENGGUANG,ZHUDONGBAWODUIXIANGDENENGLIYEJIUGENGQIANG,ZAOXINGNENGLIYEJIUHUIDEDAOZHIDEFEIYUE。

    ;STRONG静止的形体与运动的形体/STRONG

    手机棋牌游戏;JINGGUO—DUANSHIJIANDEXUNLIAN,BAWOMOTEDEXINGTIBIANDERONGYILE,DANSHIRENTIDESHENGDONGXINGYUHUOLIQIAQIASHIZAIYUNDONGZHANXIANCHULAI,ZAIYUNDONGZHONGRENTIBIRANCHANSHENGNIUZHUAN,JIYA,LAZHANG,SUODUANXIANXIANG。BIRUTOUBUZAINIUZHUANSHI,JIUKEYICHANSHENGQIANHOUYANGFU、ZUOYOUYANGFU、ZUOYOUZHUANDENGYUNDONGGUIJI,XIANGYINGDEJINGBUYEHUICHANSHENGBIANHUA、TEBIESHIXIONGSUORUTUJIBANSUIZHENIUZHUANYUNDONGMINGXIANDEYOULAZHANGYUJIYAZHUANGTAIXIANSHIZAIWAIXINGSHANG,SHENTIDEQITABUFENDIANHUICHANSHENGHUODUOHUOSHAODETIJIMIANXIANGDEDONGZUO,YIHETOUBUDEBIANHUAXIANGXIEDIAO。LIJIEYUNDONG,ZHANGWOYUNDONGGUILVYOUJIWOMENDEXUESHENGTICHULEXINDEKETI。

    ;ZAISHENGHUOZHONG,WOMENDOUYOUZHEIYANGDEJINGYAN,HENSHUXIDEREN,LIWOMENHENYUAN,JISHIKANBUDAOBIZIYANJINGDENGXIJIE,DANZHIYAOTAYITAISHOU、YIJUZUWOMENJIUNENGYIXIAZIBATARENCHULAI,ZHEIJIUSHIMEIGERENDEDUTEDEDONGZUOJIDAXINGTI,DAGUANXIZAIQIZUOYONG。JIARUWOMENLIWUTAIHENYUANKANHUAJU,BUYIDINGNENGTINGQINGTAICI,DANSHIWOMENWANQUANKEYIGENJUYANYUANDEDONGZUOPANDUANCHUZONGDEJUQING,ZHEIYEZHENGMINGZHENGTIDEYUNDONGDONGTAISHIRENTIDEZONGBIAOQING。RENTIDEMEIYIGE“JING”DOUSHIXIAYIGE“DONG”DEQIANZOU,MEIYIGEXINDONGTAI,DOUSHIBISHIBIDIDUIXIANGDEXINLIZHUANGTAI,FANYINGDAOWAIXINGDEXIANGYINGBIANHUA。WENYIFUXINGSHIQIDEJIECHUDASHIMIKAILANGJILUOZAIRENTIDIAOSUDEYUNYONGZHONGQIANGLIEDEGERENTEDIANDADAGAIBIANLELUOXIANGDEXINGZHI,YOU—GESHIXIANLIXIANGDETUJINGBIANCHENGLEBIAODAGANQINGDETUJING,BINGCHUANGZUOLEDALIANGTIGEJIANZHUANG,JIROUFADA,NENGLIYUMEIWEI—SHENDEDIAOSU。ZHEIXIEDIAOSUZHANXIANWEIQITUNSHANHEDEYIZHI,XIONGYONGPENGPAIDEREQINGWUYIBUSHIYUMIGONGLANGJILUOCHENGGONGDEYUNYONGYUNDONGXINGTIDEDIANFAN。YINCIJIBENXUNLIANZHONGDEMEIYIGEXINGTIJIBUSHI—GEGEGULIDEJIEPOUFUHAO,YEBUYINGSHIWEIFANRENTIYUNDONGGUILVDEJIANGYINGBIENIUDECUCAOZAOXING。

    ;STRONG形体面向与体积感觉/STRONG

    ;RENTIZAIKONGJIANZHONGSHIYIDUOGEMIANXIANGZHANSHICHULAIDE,NENGZHENGQUEDIBIAOXIANCHUZHEIZHONGMIANXIANG,ZUOYEBIRANGENGFUBIAOXIANLI。YINWEIDIAOSUSHIKONGJIANZHONGDEXINGTI。ZUOYEWANCHENGZHANSHISHI,ZUOZHEBUNENGGUIDINGGUANZHONGSHIJIAOJISHIXIAN,YINCI,ZAIMIANXIANGDECHULIZHONGYINGCHONGFENKAOLVDAOBUTONGJIAODUDEGUANGAN。ZHEIDIANWOMENKEYIZAIZHONGDUODECHENGGONGDIAOSUZUOPINZHONGZHAODAOZUOZHENG。BIRU,XILADIAOSU,ZUOZHEWEILEBIAOXIANRENTIANJINGDELIXIANGMEI,DADUOBARENTISUCHENGTOUYUXIONG,XIONGYUPENGU、PENGULIANJIEDATUIYUXIAOTUIXINGCHENGWEIDONGDESIGEMIANXIANG,ERWENYIFUXINGSHIQIDEMIKAILANGJILUOWEILEZAIRENTIZHONGCHUANDAFANKANGYUZAODONGDEGANQING,YOUBARENTICHULICHENGQIANGLIENIUZHUANDELIANGGEDAMIAN。JIBENLIANXIMEIYANGZUOYESUIGEYOUCEZHONG,DANYEYINGCHONGFENZHUZHONGMIANXIANGDEGANQINGYINSUYUBIAOXIANLI。

    手机棋牌游戏YINWEIRENTIBUKENENGYIYIGEJIANDANDELIFANGTICHENGXIANZAIWOMENMIANQIAN,SUOYIZAIDIAOSUGUOCHENGZHONGMIANDUIFUZADEMIANXIANGGUANXIHUIJINGCHANGPOHUAIXINGDEGUYOUTIJI。NEIME,YINGGAIZENYANGRENSHIGUYOUTIJINI?PIRUSHUO,ZAIYIKUAIKONGDISHANG,XIANZAIXINJIAN—CHUANGFANGZI,ZHEIGEFANGZIJIUZHANJULEZHEIKUAIKONGDIDEYIBUFENKONGJIAN,RENTIYESHIYIZISHENDETIJIZHANJUZHEKONGJIAN,ZUOYESHIJIUYAOQIUSHISHIGUANZHURENTIDAXINGTIDEWANZHENGXING。DANGRANYAOZUODAORENTIDIAOSUHAIYAOZHUYIWULIGANJUEYUXINLIGANJUEWENTI,MIANDUIZUOYEWOMENYINGGANJUETAYOUYIGUXIANGWAICHONGDELI,TONGSHIKONGJIANZHONGYEYOUXIANGZUOYENEIYADEWUXINGDEQI,DANGZHEIZHONGNEIWAIDELIDADAOZUIDAXIANDU,NEIWAIDADAOYIZHONGXINDEXINLIJUNHENGSHI,WOMENWEIZHITIJICHONGFEN、BAOMAN。YAOZUODAOZHEIDIANJIUYAOSHISHIGUANXINWOMENZHOUWEIXINGDEGANJUE:YIZHANGZHI(SUIRANDIANYOUHOUDU)YIKUAIZHUANYOUYUZISHENDEMIANSHIPINGDE,SUOYIGANJUESHANGTAMENBUJUBEIXIANGWAICHONGDELI,ERYUANQIUJIUJUBEIYOUZHONGXINXIANGWAICHONGDEGANJUE。RUGUOWOMENBAZHEIZHONGGANJUEFANGRURENTIZHONG,JIUBUHUISUIYIPOHUAIRENTIZISHENDEYUANDENEIHEYUDIDIANDELIANJIELE,RUGUOZAIZUOHAODAXINGDETONGSHIYOUYOUBUPOHUAIDAXINGTIDEXIAOXINGTILAIFENGFUTA,ZUOPINBIRANSHENGDONGNAIKAN,XINGTISUIRANSHIYIWULIXINGSHIZHANXIANCHULAI,DANHAISHIYAOJINGGUOGANJUEZHEIBAWUXINGDECHIZIDEJIANYAN。

    ;STRONG基本形体与整体表现/STRONG

    ;QIANMIAN,WOMENJIUJIBENXINGTIDEBUFENGUILVJINXINGLE—XIETANTAO,NEIMESHIBUSHIDUIJIBENXINGTIYOULEYIXIERENSHIJIUSUANDADAOMUDELENI?HUIDASHIFOUDINGDE;RUGUOBARENTIBIZUO—PIANWENZHANGDEHUA,MEIGEDEXINGTIJINJINSHI—GEGEDANCI,YAOSHIWENZHANGTONGCHANGGANRENHAIYAOBAGEDANCIZAIZONGDEDAGANGXIAWANMEIDELIANJIEQILAI,ZHEICAISHIZHENGTIZAOXINGDEYIYI。DIAOSU,YINGYOUHELIDEDONGTAI,XIANGWAICHONGLAIDETIJI,YOUBIAOXIANLIDEYINGXIANG,BINGYOUZUOZHEDUTEDEYISHUGANSHOUYUYISHUBIAOXIANDEWANMEIJIEHE。WOGUOZHUMINGDIAOSUJIAHUATIANYOUXIANSHENGBAZHENGTIYUJIBENXINGTIDEGUANXIBIYUWEI“CHUANTANGHULU”DEGUANXI,MEIYOUZHENGTIZHEIGENGUN,DANGRANTANGHULUYEBUZHIDAOZENYANGCHUANLE,WEICIJIUYAOQIUWOMENRENZHENYANJIUJIEPOUJIEGOUGUILV,BINGJIZHUMEIGEXINGTIDEDUANMIAN,MEIYOUSHENMEMIZHISANWAN,ZUCHUANMIFANGNENGSHIRENSHUISHANGYIJUEZAOSHANGJIUMINGBAIZENYANGGUANCHAXINGTI,ZENYANGSUZAODIAOSU。RENTIDIAOSUSHANGDANIJIEDUANJIUYAOBAZHUYAOJIEGOUYONGXINGTIDEYUYANSHENGDONGDEZAIZHENGTIZHONGBIAOXIANCHULAI,ZHEISHIBUYAOQIUXIYUGONGZHENG、GENGBUNENGSIKEMOUYIJUBU,YAOQIUBAWODUIXIANGDEWEIDAOJIJIBENTIJIDEZHENGQUEKONGJIANGAN,BINGZAIBUDUANDESHENRUZHONGLAOLAODIBAOCHIZHEIZHONGZHENGTIDEGANJUEYUGUANXI。

    STRONG;理解与感觉/STRONG

    ;能够在泥塑塑造过程中知道该看什么,不该看什么,做到把握对象的基本内在关系并能作到该做什么,不该做什么时,也就形成了自觉的、科学的观察、分析,表现对象的基本能力,不讲艺术科学规律是片面的,结果往往偏离了高等艺术院校对学生辅以“三基”的基本要求与目的,艺术教学应强调规律,在此基础上,学生的感觉才能得到升华与提高,在理解的基础上才能更深层次的感受对象,教学中好园丁应知道那棵树苗需要浇水,那棵树苗需要上哪种肥,因势利导,因材施教使每棵树苗都生长各异,长大成材。为了解决基本练习中的感觉问题,应该教育学生用专业的目光有选择地看对象,抓住感觉各取所需、大胆取舍,另一方面,又要教他们有一双不戴框框的眼睛,善于寻找到对象的特点与美的地方,只有这样才能使感觉常新。也是不断进步的保证,既要专业眼镜,又要摘下这幅眼镜,看似矛盾,但实质上是相辅相成,互为弥补。

    STRONG;表面手法与形体/STRONG

    ;无疑,在雕塑塑造中有表现力的手法对整个雕塑的表现力具有重要作用,罗丹、莫尔,贾科梅地这些大师的作品都有令人惊叹的表面处理,这往往使初学者神往,很容易停留在大师作品表面的“帅气”上,而不在深层次中再下功夫。于是,一段时间中很多人一小点一小点的用雕塑刀在雕塑表面沾泥,使泥塑表面呈现带装饰性的小园点,又有些人拿起稀泥大块小块的追求“泥味”,笔者以为追求表面的特殊味道并不坏,但离开基本形体谈表面处理却是没有任何实际意义的,表面不管或光或毛,能把形体的基本感觉表现出来,教学目的也就基本达到了。例如我们看一件雕塑的双腿,能把支撑腿的紧张及踮起来放松的腿的感觉表现出来、区别开。双腿的形体也就塑造成功了,至于表面手法,那是作者在塑造对象时自然而然的感情流露,离开这点谈表面处理,只能是本末倒置“皮之不存,毛之焉附”而离基本训练的目的更远了。抓住形体也就等于抓住了雕塑的本质与基本语言,说得绝对点,没有形体也就没有雕塑,抓住它往往能起到事半功倍的效果,因此,雕塑的教与学都应在这点引起极大的注意,并下功夫去认识,掌握它。



    原载《四川美术学院报》1997年总第64期





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