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  • 中国原始社会动物雕塑
    发布日期:2015-07-23     浏览:1098次     文字分类:雕塑知识  
    STRONG动物雕塑

    /STRONG中国动物形象雕塑作品最早出现于新石器时代早期,多属陶塑、石雕,也有少量牙雕和木雕。在河南裴李岗文化遗址出土有陶塑猪、羊头,距今约7000多年。辽宁东沟后洼遗址出土有很多滑石雕成的虎、猪、狗、鸡、鹅、鹰、蝉、鸟、昆虫、鱼等形象,造型单纯而生动。其中一件屈身、阔口、大眼、有角的龙,为已知最早的石雕龙的形象。浙江余姚河姆渡遗址也出土有陶塑和牙、木雕刻的猪、羊、鱼、鸟、蜥蜴等动物形象,形体不大,已具备圆雕、浮雕、线刻等不同表现形式。其中一件陶猪,高4.5厘米,长6.3厘米,作低头疾走的动势,体肥、口方,腹部肌肉松弛,将一头老母猪的形态,概括而传神地表现了出来。鱼的身上戳出圆圈或圆窝,以象征鱼鳞。牙雕“双凤朝阳”,长16.6厘米,在正中部位,以阴线刻出一组大小不等的同心圆,外缘有跳动的光芒,两侧对称地雕出回首相顾的双鸟,构成相当完整的图案。后洼遗址和河姆渡文化距今都在6000年以前。

    STRONGTAOSUDONGWU/STRONG ZAIXINSHIQISHIDAIZHONGWANQIDEWENHUAYIZHIZHONGFAXIANLEGENGDUODETAOZHIDONGWUDIAOSUZUOPIN。YANGSHAOWENHUADEBANPOYIZHICHUTUYOUGOUSHOUNIAOWEIDETAOSUQIBING。HUBEITIANMENCHUTUDEHUBEILONGSHANWENHUASHIQIDEYIQUNRENYUDONGWUTAOSU,SHULIANGZHONGDUO,CHUYANG、GOU、JIDENGJIACHUJIAQINWAI,HAIYOUDAXIANGHEWUGUI。ZHEIXIESUISHOUNIECHENGDEXIAOTAOSU,NENGGOUBIAOXIANDONGWUHUODONGZHONGDESHENTAI。RUGOUHENIAODEDONGZUOBIANHUAHENDUO,YOUDENIUSHOUZHULI,YOUDEHUITOUYANGWANG,YOUDEDITOUMISHI,YOUDEGOUBEISHANGHAIQIZHEYIZHINIAO。XINSHIQISHIDAI,ZAIDINGJUNONGYEDEHUANJINGZHONG,NANBEIGEDIPUBIANSIYANGZHEZHU、YANG、NIU、GOU、MA、JIDENGLIUCHU。DIAOSUZUOZHEZAISHOULIEHEHUANYANGJIACHUDEHUODONGZHONG,TONGGUOZHANGQIGUANCHA,SHUXIGEZHONGDONGWUDETEZHENGYUXIXING。YINER,ZHEIXIEZUOPINSUIXINGTIJIANDAN,DANTEDIANXIANMING,DONGTAISHENGDONG。

    STRONG陶鹰鼎(陕西华县出土)
    /STRONG

    YIXIEJIAODAXINGDEDONGWUXINGTAOQI,ZAIZAOXINGSHANGDADAOHENGAODEYISHUSHUIPING。SHANXIHUAXIANYANGSHAOWENHUAMIAODIGOULEIXINGCHENGNIANNVXINGMUZANGSUOCHUDETAOYINGDING,GAO36LIMI,ZUOLIANYIZHANLIZHIZHUANG,QIKOUKAIYUBEISHANG,GOUHUIYOULI,SHUANGMUYUANZHENG,ZHOUSHENGUANGJIEWEIJIAWENSHI,JIEGOUJIANJIE,TIJIGANHENQIANG,SHUANGZUYUWEIWENDINGDICHENGZHUYUDI,ZHENGGEZAOXINGCHONGMANJIEAOMENGLIDEQISHI。HUAXIANCHUTUDEYIGETAOMAOTOUYINGSHOUQIWUGAI,YANQUANYUTOUDINGZHUOCHUCHENGPAIDEYUMAOWEN,YUANYUANDEYANJINGYUGOUHUIQIANGRENYOULIDELUNKUOXIAN,YEHENHAODIBIAOXIANCHUMENGQINDETEZHENG。JIANGSUWUJIANGMEINIANYIZHISUOCHUDELIANGZHUWENHUATAOSHUINIAOHU,ZEGUANGHUAXIZHANG,YANXIAOERJIJING,WEIBUWEILIUKOU,WEIWEISHANGQIAO,JIBIANYUZHUSHUI,YOUXIANSHICHUSHUINIAOXIANG□YUSHUIBIANYAJIDEGANJUE。SHANDONGCHUTUDEJIJIANSHOUXINGQIZAOXINGYEHENSHENGDONG。DAWENKOUSUOCHUDESHOUXING□、JIAOXIANSANLIHESUOCHUDEGOU□,DOUZUOYANGSHOUHUJIAODEDONGZUO,ERSHENTAIHUBUXIANGTONG。QIANZHEKOUDAZHANG,XIAOWEIQIAOQI,FANGFOKANDAOSHIWU,FACHUJIQIEDEJIAOSHENG;HOUZHETOUJINGSHENZHANG,MIQIYANJING,WEIJUANQICHENGWEIQIBING,FANGFOSHISUIYIFACHUYINDEFEISHENG,QITUNBUSUCHUQIANGMENHESHENGZHIQI,JISHISHIYONGQIWU,YOULIQIUZUODEZHENSHI、JUTI。SANLIHECHUTUDEYIJIANZHU□,QIZUYICANSHI,ZHUTIZAOXINGYUANHUN,DITOURUMISHIZHIZHUANG,YEHENHAODIBIAOXIANLEZHUDEXINGTIYUXIXINGTEZHENG。ZHEIXIENIAO、SHOUXINGTIDEQIWUZAIDANGSHIDESHEHUISHENGHUOZHONGKENENGJUYOUZONGJIAOHUOLIYIDEYIYI,SHANG、XIZHOUSHIQIDEQINGTONGNIAOSHOUXINGLIQIZAIZAOXINGSHANGYUZHEIXIETAOQIYOUMINGXIANDEJICHENGGUANXI。

     STRONG 陶水鸟壶(江苏吴江出土)
    /STRONG

    YOUXIETAORONGQICONGXIESHIDEDONGWUXINGTAITUOCHU,ERRENGRANBAOLIUYOUQISHENGHUOYUANXINGDEMOUXIETEZHENG。RUJIANGSUNANJINGBEIYINYANGYINGCHUTUDEQINGLIANGANGWENHUATAO□,QIKOURUDAZHANGZHEZUIDENIAOTOU,DIBUSANZHIYAZUIXINGBIANZUXIANGWAICHENGKAI,FUBUDEGUANZHUANGLIUHENIAOWEIXINGBIANBASHOU,XIANGSHISHUANGYIZHANGKAIPUDAZHE。ZHENGGEQIWUDEZAOXINGXIANGYIZHIFEIPANGDEXIAONIAOZAIHUJIAOBENPAOZHEDEGANJUE。YOURUSHANDONGDEDAWENKOUWENHUABAITAO□,QIZAOXINGXIBUBIANHUADUODUAN,DANDOUNENGLINGRENLIANXIANGDAOXIONGJIBAOXIAODEDONGZUO。QIKOUDELIUJIANZHANGRUNIAOHUI,YOUDEHAIZAIZHANGLIUDEHOUBUJIASHANGLIANGGEXIANGSHIYANJINGDEYUANNIDING;YOUDEJINGBUHENZHANGQIEXIANGHOUWANYANGZHE;YOUDEJIANGLIANJIEQI□DEDAIZUJIADA,YOURUNIAOFU。ZHEIXIEQIWUDEZAOXINGSHENGDONGYOUQU,NENGYINFAXINSHANGZHEDELIANXIANG,JUYOUCHOUXIANGDIAOSUDEYIWEI。YINIAOTOUWEISHIDEQIWUZAIHENANSHANXIANMIAODIGOU、SHANXIHUAXIANLIUZIZHEN、GANSUWUWEIHUANGNIANGNIANGTAIDENGDIDOUYOUFAXIAN,YOUDEXINGXIANGBIJIAOZHENSHI、JUTI,SIWEIQIWUDEBASHOUBUFEN;YOUDEHENJIANDAN,ZHISUCHUYIDUISHENXIANDEDAYANWOHEJIANHUI,DUOSHIZUOWEIQIERHUOZAOSHANGDESHIWU。

    STRONG兽形□

    /STRONGYOUXIETAOQISHANGDEFUJIAXIAODONGWUZHUANGSHI,YEHENSHENGDONG。HENANSHANXIANMIAODIGOUWENHUADESANPIANCANTAOQISHANGDENIESUBIHU,YIJIANWEIXINIHEITAO,BIHUSHENSHANGDEPINGXINGXIEXIANWENHEZHANGERZHIDEWEIBA,DOUZAOCHENGYIZHONGXIANGQIANJIXINGDEYUNDONGGAN;LINGWAILIANGPIANSHISUYUJIASHAHONGTAOQIKOUYANBUWEI,BIHUSHENSHANGCHUOCHUHENDUOXIAOYUANDIAN,SHIFENSHENGDONGDIBIAOXIANCHUBIHUCUANDONG、XIANGQINEIKUITANDEDONGZUO。GANSULINXIACHUTUMAJIAYAOWENHUAMACHANGLEIXINGDESHUANGWATOUXINGHONGTAOLANYUWAXINGTAOGUAN,SHUANGMUTUQIHUOYINXIANKECHENGYUANQUAN,KOUBUYIZHANGZHANGDEYINXIANKECHU,KUAZHANGERFUYUSHENGQU。

    大型动物泥塑手机棋牌游戏的残迹发现于辽宁牛河梁红山文化女神庙遗址之中,有神话动物猪龙和禽鸟。猪龙尚存头、耳、吻及前身、下肢部分,吻部扁圆,上下颚间露出獠牙,下身有蹄爪。禽鸟仅存两爪残块,每趾三节,趾尖锐利,作抓攫之状。

    STRONG玉石雕刻动物/STRONG 完整的猪龙形象石雕发现于同地区的积石冢之中,为一种□形玉饰,双耳肥大,圆眼,吻部前凸,有很多道皱折,身体蜷曲,尾端与吻部相接。同形的玉饰在辽宁、内蒙古、河北等地均有发现。有人认为它是由猪神化、衍变而来,是神话传说的龙的形象的早期形式。内蒙古翁牛特旗三星他拉村和黄谷屯出土的玉龙是猪龙玉饰的进一步发展。三星他拉玉龙高26厘米,墨绿色,吻部前突,鼻齐平,眼细长突起,头顶有扁薄的长鬣披于脊背,鬣的尾端宽大并向上扬起,与前伸的头部取得平衡,尾上弯起,身躯呈C形,背部正中有圆孔,可以系绳悬挂,通体光洁润泽,轮廓刚劲而优美,是原始社会玉雕中的杰作。河南濮阳仰韶文化墓葬发现了3组用蚌壳摆塑而成的龙、虎图案,最大的一组,龙长1.78米,虎长1.39米,皆侧置背向主人。至可怪异的是龙的形象竟与后世流行的龙的样式十分接近。红山文化遗址还出土有玉和绿松石雕手机棋牌游戏刻的鸟、龟、虎形□和鱼形石坠等小型的动物形象作品。玉鸟和玉蝉、龟等在江南地区的新石器时代文化遗址中也多有发现。在江苏、浙江、上海等地的良渚文化遗址中发现的玉琮上的兽面纹,为商、西周时代流行的兽面纹的早期样式。其中雕琢最为精工的是江苏武进寺墩所出的一件,为扁方柱体,高7.2厘米。浮雕与线刻结合的兽面共8组,分做上下两层。下层的4组均以四角为中轴作对称的安排,眼为重圈,包着椭圆形的眼睛,鼻为扇形凸面,嘴为横条形,在五官范围和边框上,刻有细密匀称的花纹,最细的线条仅0.7丝米。上层的4组图案为同一兽面纹的简化形式。这些玉器具有宗教的、礼仪的性质。龙的形象和兽面纹浮雕,显示了原始社会艺术与奴隶社会艺术之间的渊源关系。

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